The Longest-Running Evolution Experiment

If you ran evolution all over again, would you get humans? How repeatable is ? This video is sponsored by @BountyBrand.

Special thanks to Prof. Richard Lenski and team for showing me around the lab - it is an honor to be able to witness and document such a historic science experiment.
Thanks to Dr Zachary Blount for the help with research and setting up the competition time-lapse, Dr Nkrumah Grant for microscope images of the long-term line cells @NkrumahGrant
Devin Lake, Kate Bellgowan, and Dr. Minako Izutsu for being part of this video. Long Live the LTEE!

LTEE website - myxo.css.msu.edu/ecoli/index.html
Intro footage courtesy of the Kishony Lab - kishony.technion.ac.il
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References:
Lenski, R. E., & Travisano, M. (1994). Dynamics of adaptation and diversification: a 10,000-generation experiment with bacterial populations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 91(15), 6808-6814. - ve42.co/Lenski1994

Lenski, R. E., Rose, M. R., Simpson, S. C., & Tadler, S. C. (1991). Long-term experimental evolution in Escherichia coli. I. Adaptation and divergence during 2,000 generations. The American Naturalist, 138(6), 1315-1341. - ve42.co/Lenski1991

Good, B. H., McDonald, M. J., Barrick, J. E., Lenski, R. E., & Desai, M. M. (2017). The dynamics of molecular evolution over 60,000 generations. Nature, 551(7678), 45-50. - ve42.co/Good2017

Blount, Z. D., Borland, C. Z., & Lenski, R. E. (2008). Historical contingency and the evolution of a key innovation in an experimental population of Escherichia coli. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(23), 7899-7906. - ve42.co/Blount2008

Blount, Z. D., Lenski, R. E., & Losos, J. B. (2018). Contingency and determinism in evolution: Replaying life’s tape. Science, 362(6415). - ve42.co/Blount2018

Wiser, M. J., Ribeck, N., & Lenski, R. E. (2013). Long-term dynamics of adaptation in asexual populations. Science, 342(6164), 1364-1367. - ve42.co/Wiser2013

N, Scharping. (2019). How a 30-Year Experiment Has Fundamentally Changed Our View of How Evolution Works. Discover - ve42.co/Scharping

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Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Mike Tung, Evgeny Skvortsov, Meekay, Ismail Öncü Usta, Paul Peijzel, Crated Comments, Anna, Mac Malkawi, Michael Schneider, Oleksii Leonov, Jim Osmun, Tyson McDowell, Ludovic Robillard, Jim buckmaster, fanime96, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Vincent, Marinus Kuivenhoven, Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Joar Wandborg, Clayton Greenwell, Pindex, Michael Krugman, Cy 'kkm' K'Nelson, Sam Lutfi, Ron Neal

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Research and Writing by by Derek Muller, Petr Lebedev and Casey Rentz
Animation by Iván Tello
Filmed by Derek Muller, Emily Zhang and Raquel Nuno
Edited by Derek Muller
Music by Jonny Hyman and from Epidemic Sound epidemicsound.com
Additional video supplied by Getty Images
Thumbnail image courtesy of the Kishony Lab
Produced by Casey Rentz
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Kommentarer

  • Wavemaker
    Wavemaker4 timmar sedan

    I wonder at what generation will the bacteria start to grow arms and legs.

  • Croissant :{
    Croissant :{5 timmar sedan

    Cleaning up using paper is incredibly environmentally wasteful. Disastrous. The immune system can easily resist the sponge bacteria and things like those keep our immunity going, instead of it atrophying Sponsorships are ok, but i see this as something that promotes harm more than any good I use cellulose sponges (because plastic ones dont really decompose very fast).

  • Croissant :{
    Croissant :{5 timmar sedan

    Id love more biology videois ^^

  • LucyRoseLuna
    LucyRoseLuna5 timmar sedan

    day 42

  • Pearl S
    Pearl S6 timmar sedan

    I was attacked by my cat last year and have an incredibly rare actinomyces neuii infection of some of the bites. Before this, I hadn't been on antibiotics since I was a toddler, and during the first few courses last August, I joked I hoped never to be on them again. Now that we got DNA testing of the tissue to suss out the bacteria, I'm about 6 weeks in to a course of antibiotics that will last between 3 and 18 months, with an average of about a year. So the first minute of this video just made me feel fantastic.... Fantastically paranoid, that is.

  • Caitlyn Foster
    Caitlyn Foster11 timmar sedan

    Technically this is adaption, not evolution: the bacteria is adapting to be able to survive the poison, not turning into something other than the bacteria it was at the start. At the beginning and end, it’s still the same kind of bacteria, just with the ability to endure the greater concentration. Not true evolution.

  • Caitlyn Foster

    Caitlyn Foster

    5 timmar sedan

    @Crispr CAS9 “Eukaryote” simply means an organism with dna in chromosomes contained in a distinct nucleus in its cells. Yes, I would say we fit that classification; but you’ve avoided the entire question by throwing out a vague term. We aren’t talking about how our cell nuclei work. We’re talking about your opinion that everything should be classified exactly as its evolutionary ancestors were.

  • Crispr CAS9

    Crispr CAS9

    5 timmar sedan

    @Caitlyn Foster " from a bacterium-like starting point" Note the 'like' in that. LUCA was a prokaryote, but it was NOT a bacteria. "Are you saying that makes all life, whether fish or dogs or humans, simply “bacteria” because that is what we supposedly came from?" All animals, including humans, are still eukaryotes because we descended from eukaryotes. Mushrooms and plants are also eukaryotes.

  • Caitlyn Foster

    Caitlyn Foster

    6 timmar sedan

    @Crispr CAS9 So... correct me if I’m wrong. The theory of evolution currently has the idea that all life evolved from a bacterium-like starting point, though it branched out and different branches developed differently. Are you saying that makes all life, whether fish or dogs or humans, simply “bacteria” because that is what we supposedly came from?

  • Crispr CAS9

    Crispr CAS9

    7 timmar sedan

    @Caitlyn Foster "How would it turning into something other than bacteria disprove evolution?" Because that would be a descendant that isn't a member of its parent's clade, which is a fundamental violation of descent with modification and monophyly that are absolutely inviolable under evolutionary theory. "certain species developed into other species?" Certain populations diverge and accumulate differences. Species are labels assigned by people. Absent people assigning the labels, there can be no species. But the populations would still be there, and they'd still be every bit as different. However, the extent of those differences is highly correlated to people assigning different species labels to those populations. But at absolutely no point can descendants NOT be descended from their parents, because that's not possible. So if the parents are bacteria, ALL of the descendants MUST be bacteria as well. Doesn't matter if they are 12' long marine herbivores, they'd still be bacteria.

  • Caitlyn Foster

    Caitlyn Foster

    9 timmar sedan

    @Crispr CAS9 How would it turning into something other than bacteria disprove evolution? Isn’t the theory of evolution based on the idea that over time, certain species developed into other species? Would you have preferred I used the word “species”? Word choice is not a big deal. You are nitpicking. If you want the scientific word choice, it’s simple enough to change “kind” to “species.” Most people would understand that.

  • binslagala
    binslagala12 timmar sedan

    Shouldn't they wear gloves? :D Awesome video !

  • Rasmus Odgaard
    Rasmus Odgaard12 timmar sedan

    So 42 is the universe...and everything?

  • JR HsN.2
    JR HsN.213 timmar sedan

    Hello Monkey guys 😂

  • delta444
    delta44413 timmar sedan

    I love science ❤ It's like being a part in the evolution of knowledge

  • Jim Harris
    Jim Harris14 timmar sedan

    So it metabolizes citrate? yes. But it's still E coli? You confirmed it? yes. Okay. Let me know when it doesn't pass an E coli identity test.

  • Sadique Khan
    Sadique Khan18 timmar sedan

    So when it will start speaking?

  • Haz
    Haz20 timmar sedan

    Please make sure you close that lab door tightly we don’t want new stuff coming out from labs 🧫

  • JC Wood
    JC Wood20 timmar sedan

    Replace the word evolution with adaptation please. Because science. Evolution implies information being ADDED to the genome. Please show evidence of this.

  • JC Wood

    JC Wood

    3 timmar sedan

    @Crispr CAS9 No, Evolution is the gradual development of biological life from a simple to a more complex form. Simple to more complex. That implies ADDATIVE MUTATION which is a total fantasy. 'Every insertion and duplication adds information by definition'. Oh really? So, if I take a carburetor and whack it with a hammer until it produces a richer fuel feed that produces more engine torque, does that mean the car has 'evolved?' Where is this 'insertion' you mention where new, cohesive DNA sequences that form complex biological processes are being ADDED to the system from EXISTING genetics? Fantasy land, that's where. THERE IS NO SUCH THING AS ADDATIVE MUTATION. PERMUTATION IS ALTERATIONS WITHIN AN EXISTING SET. IT IS NOT UPWARDLY MOBILE UNLESS YOU BELIEVE IN REVERSE ENTROPY. Changes in allele frequencies is Microevolution, another fantasy fiction name that implies additive mutation, but when you actually dissect the semantics of it, it literally comes out to an adaptation of an already existing genetic structure, and the passing on of that adaptation to future strains. It is NOT the fantasy-land imaginary process described by 'evolution' where complex biological sequences simply 'pop into existence' and add themselves to the genome. That never has happened and never will happen, and that is why there is not ONE DOCUMENTED CASE of it in all of recorded human history. Microevolution is a bait-and-switch semantics game to try and trick people into believing in 'pops into existence' fantasy style 'evolution'. One may as well believe in rabbits being pulled out of hats.

  • Crispr CAS9

    Crispr CAS9

    19 timmar sedan

    "Replace the word evolution with adaptation please." Evolution is the change in allele frequencies in a population over successive generations, which this definitely is. " Evolution implies information being ADDED to the genome. Please show evidence of this." Every insertion and duplication mutation adds information by definition. The Ara-3 strain discussed in this video has such a mutation, as demonstrated by sequencing.

  • Equilibrium
    EquilibriumDag sedan

    Can someone help me understand? Because it doesn't make sense to me.

  • zhou sei

    zhou sei

    Dag sedan

    @Equilibrium ok, i'll try to remember to do it tomorrow, but my brain is turning off.

  • Equilibrium

    Equilibrium

    Dag sedan

    @zhou sei The video is long, full of information that I couldn't retain quite as good although watching it over and over. So i guess the whole thing, but you can give me a quick summary

  • zhou sei

    zhou sei

    Dag sedan

    observe e coli, new proteins pop up... some are helpful, others not so much. or what part was difficult, i don't wanna limit anything here...

  • Steven Schupak
    Steven SchupakDag sedan

    It'll be an experiment in evolution when one of the cultures becomes a duck and waddles away. Until then is an experiment in adaptation.

  • zhou sei

    zhou sei

    7 minuter sedan

    ​@Steven Schupak common descent might be a tough concept to grasp, but it's real. if you refuse to believe it, that's up to you... just like if you refuse to believe that australia exists. either way, the reality doesn't care about your belief, the reality will continue to be the reality regardless.

  • Crispr CAS9

    Crispr CAS9

    5 timmar sedan

    @Steven Schupak "dude that metaphore just doesn't work for me. 🤷‍♂️.. it's jibberish to me" Oh, sorry I assumed you understood the language. Get back to me when you learn to read!

  • Steven Schupak

    Steven Schupak

    5 timmar sedan

    @Crispr CAS9 dude that metaphore just doesn't work for me. 🤷‍♂️.. it's jibberish to me. The link between being your brothers father isn't a thing, dosen't make sense. it's a little too west virgina for me. Your "brothers" loosely used maybe in 1,000,000 generations of separation would still be primates, not "ducks" or whatever you think would be next.

  • Crispr CAS9

    Crispr CAS9

    5 timmar sedan

    @Steven Schupak "did the duck and the bacteria not stem from "thing a"?" Did you and your brother not start from your father? So you can be your brother's father, right? No? Obviously not right? Same thing.

  • Steven Schupak

    Steven Schupak

    6 timmar sedan

    @Crispr CAS9 did the duck and the bacteria not stem from "thing a"? That's what I saw. So the potential for duck or bacteria must be in everything. Because anything is possible given the time and iterations. Clearly both are possible. What came from what isn't the point it's what becomes what next. Until its no longer bacteria It's adaptation.. when you compare generation 1 to generation 1,000,000.. if it's still bacteria then it didn't evolve it just adapted aka survived... given the laws of physics it would probably be worse not better. Straight probability.

  • Michael
    MichaelDag sedan

    This is really cool, but let's all hope those hyper mutant e coli don't accidentally get released into the wild from that building being destroyed by a natural disaster or something.

  • Luciano Stabel
    Luciano StabelDag sedan

    I read about this experiment on Dawkin's The Greatest Show On Earth book. This experiment is astonishingly great. Your video doesn't fall behind, great content. Thank you so much for that.

  • Islam Mokhtar
    Islam MokhtarDag sedan

    Can you make a relativity-based explanation of the tides in oceans?!

  • Crypto Secutiry
    Crypto SecutiryDag sedan

    The fresh ping preoperatively suck because speedboat routinely squeal through a erratic judge. chubby, scattered attraction

  • Beaman Surchit
    Beaman SurchitDag sedan

    How are you defining evolution? You have here demonstrated micro-evolution - evolution within a species: bacteria in and bacteria out. No one has a problem believing there is micro-evolution going on, which creates changes within a species. Sometimes these changes - mutations - are advantageous: longer beaks; stronger muscles; ability to live in a changing environment, such as one that has had antibiotics added to it. Mutation has NEVER added new DNA information, which would be essential for interspecies evolution to occur.

  • zhou sei

    zhou sei

    8 timmar sedan

    @Beaman Surchit i was making a rhetorical exaggeration of his "change in type" argument to demonstrate the absurdity of even that. change in type makes no sense, even if you aren't talking about a fish giving birth to a monkey.

  • Crispr CAS9

    Crispr CAS9

    21 timme sedan

    @Beaman Surchit "How many generations of changing alleles are required for a bacteria to become ... not bacteria - a new species?" It is a new species when people decide it is, but that decision is correlated to the extent of divergence. In bacteria, the delimitation is usually by ecotype (by which Ara-3 should already be a different species) or 3% 16S divergence (by which it should be a new species in another few million generations). But at no point would the descendants of bacteria not be bacteria, because bacteria is a clade, and descendants are always in all of the clades their ancestors were in. "Isn't the whole point of the theory to suggest the "evolution" of slime into ... eventually ... homo sapiens?" Thinking that getting humans is the 'point' of evolution is a radical misunderstanding of the theory. Evolution explains the origins of humans, it doesn't require it. " but eventually it has to get there - eventually you MUST have interspecies evolution." Given sufficient accumulation of divergence, you can get extremely modified descendants, which would result in labeling the new population as a different species from the ancestral population. Experimental speciation is well documented and extremely repeatable. "We each could of course throw our own "experts" at the many issues" Casey Luskin is not an expert in any relevant field, EvolutionNews is a crank website, and nonetheless the linked article *still* manages to confirm that you can get new information from mutations. And if mutations can produce new information, as we must now agree they can, and if some fraction of those mutations are beneficial, as is necessarily true, then I'm not sure what you think the problem is. In terms of producing complex features by mutation, you can look at the development of placental viviparity in lizards, happening in real time in the wild. "If evolutionary theory is correct, transitional forms of life should be literally all around us" The preservation of transitional forms is a question of geology and historical contingency, not biology. Nonetheless, we have excellent fossil sequences for most major transitions of the past 500 million years. And by the way, Darwin went on to say: "On the absence or rarity of transitional varieties. As natural selection acts solely by the preservation of profitable modifications, each new form will tend in a fully-stocked country to take the place of, and finally to exterminate, its own less improved parent or other less-favoured forms with which it comes into competition. Thus extinction and natural selection will, as we have seen, go hand in hand. Hence, if we look at each species as descended from some other unknown form, both the parent and all the transitional varieties will generally have been exterminated by the very process of formation and perfection of the new form." "We should be able to "read" evolution from nature just as easily as from a book." Much like understand a book is only easy if you understand the language, understanding evolution is only easy if you understand the underlying chemistry and statistics. At which point, evolution is unmistakable.

  • Beaman Surchit

    Beaman Surchit

    23 timmar sedan

    @zhou sei I wasn't even remotely making such a ludicrous suggestion. edit: I should have added: Ham doesn't either. If you have actually listened to Ham's arguments you were either listening very carelessly; or your comments here are disingenuous at best.

  • Beaman Surchit

    Beaman Surchit

    23 timmar sedan

    ​@Crispr CAS9 "Evolution is the change in allele frequencies in a population over successive generations." How many generations of changing alleles are required for a bacteria to become ... not bacteria - a new species? "If we saw something other than bacteria evolve from bacteria, it would disprove evolution." Pardon me? Isn't the whole point of the theory to suggest the "evolution" of slime into ... eventually ... homo sapiens? I know you're not saying that a bacteria suddenly evolves into a mouse (for example) but eventually it has to get there - eventually you MUST have interspecies evolution. "Every duplication and insertion mutation adds information by definition." We each could of course throw our own "experts" at the many issues and problems raised by the theory of evolution, but that would never smooth out our differences. Allow me go there just once and suggest you take a look, from my perspective, at "Can Random Mutations Create New Complex Features? A Response to TalkOrigins". [ evolutionnews (dot) org/2012/06/can_random_muta/ ] This website looks at the science. For me, what it boils down to is obvious observational logic. As Darwin himself questioned: “Why, if species have descended from other species by insensibly fine gradations, do we not everywhere see innumerable transitional forms.” Exactly. If evolutionary theory is correct, transitional forms of life should be literally all around us. We should be able to "read" evolution from nature just as easily as from a book. But we can't - it simply isn't there. And it's not in the fossil record either.

  • zhou sei

    zhou sei

    Dag sedan

    (assumption) you've fallen victim to ken ham and the whole "change in type" nonsense. you don't see a fish suddenly give birth to a monkey, that's not how evolution works.

  • عائلة عيد ألمانيا Maryam Rose TV Germany
    عائلة عيد ألمانيا Maryam Rose TV GermanyDag sedan

    E.coli is still E.coli

  • zhou sei

    zhou sei

    Dag sedan

    what's your point?

  • OgrAdaY
    OgrAdaYDag sedan

    Would this be considered gain of function if the e.coli develop a competitive advantage?

  • Lorenzo
    LorenzoDag sedan

    Finally we understand why 42 is the answer

  • Teflon Pan
    Teflon PanDag sedan

    I am not watching Evolution in action. Because bacteria turns resistance against enemies, does not prove a fish turning into a human over billions of years. You just take one truth and stretch it over billions of years. That's not how science works.

  • zhou sei

    zhou sei

    Dag sedan

    this one particular experiment doesn't prove that we have a fish as a common ancestor, but it is one small experiment in the grand compendium of observations, confirmed predictions, and handshakes across the aisle between sciences that aren't normally associated with eachother. you have to take the whole, you can't point to one small part of a theory and be like "see? this doesn't prove common descent". well, put it in the bag with whale bones, endogenous retroviruses, and the geological record as it pertains to fossil finds... the picture starts to look pretty complete.

  • Crispr CAS9

    Crispr CAS9

    Dag sedan

    "I am not watching Evolution in action" Evolution is the change in allele frequencies in a population over successive generations, which this definitely is.

  • ukranaut
    ukranautDag sedan

    It's not gonna end well.

  • 21trips
    21tripsDag sedan

    All those generations and none of them have have grown even as big as an ant? Great evidence against evolution between kinds of living creatures.

  • Crispr CAS9

    Crispr CAS9

    Dag sedan

    @mellowfellow14 "It took over 3 BILLION years of evolution, excnction, changes climates ect to give rise to modern man" about 4 billion, actually.

  • mellowfellow14

    mellowfellow14

    Dag sedan

    @21trips No and you never will, because that isn't evolution through natural selection works; again you show you have no understanding of it. Speciation is a gradual process, it takes thousands if not millions of years, hence you will never see a ''fish becoming a dog'' or any other creationist nonsense. It took over 3 BILLION years of evolution, excnction, changes climates ect to give rise to modern man, yet you are expecting a bacteria to ''evolve into a lizard'' in a few decades? Nonsense.

  • 21trips

    21trips

    Dag sedan

    @mellowfellow14 Natural selection works really well within a kind of living creatures but you have never seen one kind of living creature turn into another kind of living creature from natural selection like from bacteria to a lizard or fish or insect, have you?

  • Crispr CAS9

    Crispr CAS9

    Dag sedan

    " Great evidence against evolution" Evolution is the change in allele frequencies in a population over successive generations, which this definitely is. "between kinds of living creatures." Kinds is a nonsense word without scientific validity, and evolution prohibits one extant life producing another extant life form. Asking as evidence for a thing something that would disprove that thing does nothing but underline your ignorance of the subject.

  • mellowfellow14

    mellowfellow14

    Dag sedan

    How to show everyone you have no understanding of evolution through natural selection in 1 sentence.

  • JD
    JDDag sedan

    That commercial at the end just wiped out my following.

  • Oren Bartal
    Oren BartalDag sedan

    Finally we know what 42 really means - It's the number of days it takes e.coli to expand enough to fill the entire observable universe

  • Not Rian's Luke
    Not Rian's LukeDag sedan

    30 seconds into the video, and all I can think is: "Okay, but is it a good idea to forcibly evolve e-coli bacteria into being resistant to antibiotics?"

  • James Rodwell
    James RodwellDag sedan

    The bad computer universally pinch because parade rheologically injure as a freezing shorts. quiet, splendid heart

  • Tungkung Langit
    Tungkung LangitDag sedan

    Generation 999k: The bacteria started behaving like nanobots.

  • Urban Explorer
    Urban ExplorerDag sedan

    I have a doubt, have they ever checked for a bacteria that could survive the autoclave?? I mean there could be a bacteria that might have mutated so much that it might have gained ability to survive the autoclave.....

  • zhou sei

    zhou sei

    Dag sedan

    some spores can, but i wonder if a tardigrade might?

  • Vorpal Inferno
    Vorpal Inferno2 dagar sedan

    Grow bacteria that eat plastic.

  • Vorpal Inferno
    Vorpal Inferno2 dagar sedan

    Imagine doing this to humans. Welcome to grimdark.

  • Illyasviel von Einzbern
    Illyasviel von Einzbern2 dagar sedan

    Did you ask the professor how lethal those E.Coli bacteria are if they were to infect a human?

  • Samu Salla
    Samu Salla2 dagar sedan

    how come no one is talking about how beautiful that lab is

  • Michael Chen
    Michael Chen2 dagar sedan

    Just curious, is there any risk of the super-evolved E. Coli infecting the scientists?

  • Croissant :{

    Croissant :{

    5 timmar sedan

    f they ate then perhaps

  • Purvang Vasani
    Purvang Vasani2 dagar sedan

    Can we please get a video on lucid dreaming?

  • Scott Kidder
    Scott Kidder2 dagar sedan

    Wait, but evolution wouldn’t really happen if you didn’t have the selective pressure of competing with other bacteria for resources. I mean it would, the bacteria would still have mutations, but as long as the those mutations weren’t fatal, the colonies would simply randomly generate new versions but none of them would be selected for. In other words, there wouldn’t really be any “improvement” because there wouldn’t be any need to. What would they be improving at? I guess what I’m saying is that your environment is changing and it’s hard to imagine one in which nothing changed. Even in lab conditions, there’s still selective pressure. And as the colony grows, that pressure increases. So evolution is happening in the colonies not in spite of there being no environmental change in the lab, but because of it. Or are you saying that the environmental change is relatively small in the lab compared to the “wild.” And therefore, we’d expect to see a higher rate of evolutionary adaption in the wild than we would expect in the lab? Or were you saying that even in a static environment, there’s always a way to become better adapted to it, there is no perfect way to be adapted? It seems to me, nature would find the top best ways to be adapted and they would probably be different. But I also ask the question, is it even possible to keep the environment static and unchanging? And environment with 10 million bacteria in the same media is very different than an environment with 10. Even an environment with 11 bacteria is different than one with 10. So how could you effectively keep the environment the same? Or am I just missing the point? Lol

  • Crispr CAS9

    Crispr CAS9

    2 dagar sedan

    "Or were you saying that even in a static environment, there’s always a way to become better adapted to it, there is no perfect way to be adapted?" This one, I believe.

  • Elu Herrahaz
    Elu Herrahaz2 dagar sedan

    But why does it stay coli and doesn't evolve into a new species of bacteria?

  • Crispr CAS9

    Crispr CAS9

    22 timmar sedan

    @zhou sei You can use reproductive viability as a metric for species delimitation, but it is extremely problematic. Two populations might be completely interfertile, but never mate in the wild. Or consider ring species fertility.

  • zhou sei

    zhou sei

    Dag sedan

    @Crispr CAS9 in organisms with sexual reproduction, don't we just call it a new species once they cannot mate to produce viable offspring?

  • Crispr CAS9

    Crispr CAS9

    2 dagar sedan

    " evolve into a new species of bacteria?" At the point people determine these differences sufficient to label the populations as separate species, it will be. Species is a human concept, and a human label. By an ecotype conception of microbial species, the Ara-3 strain should already be classified as a separate species. By a more conventional delimitation, not until the populations reach a 3% 16S divergence.

  • PoM MoM
    PoM MoM2 dagar sedan

    Horrifying

  • Poindexter Queue
    Poindexter Queue2 dagar sedan

    Deliberately creating superbacteria... what could go wrong?

  • martixy
    martixy3 dagar sedan

    SCIENCE!

  • RB 70
    RB 703 dagar sedan

    At what point in the experiment did the E. Coli change into a different species of microorganism?

  • Crispr CAS9

    Crispr CAS9

    2 dagar sedan

    The E coli don't change into a different species. The population diverges and accumulates differences, and at some point people determine these differences sufficient to label the populations as separate species. Species is a human concept, and a human label. By an ecotype conception of microbial species, the Ara-3 strain should already be classified as a separate species. By a more conventional delimitation, not until the populations reach a 3% 16S divergence.

  • Sahnoune Khaled
    Sahnoune Khaled3 dagar sedan

    its adaptation not evolution

  • Crispr CAS9

    Crispr CAS9

    22 timmar sedan

    @Sahnoune Khaled "especillally by your statement about the definition of species" How do you think bacterial species are delimited? How do you think they SHOULD be delimited? Why?

  • zhou sei

    zhou sei

    Dag sedan

    @Sahnoune Khaled we don't yet have a theory on origins of life, afaik... just a bunch of hypotheses, such as 'abiogenesis' that young earth creationists love to think is the "aha gotcha science" moment for some reason.

  • Sahnoune Khaled

    Sahnoune Khaled

    Dag sedan

    @Crispr CAS9 you had to respect the other opinion im not convinced by your answers especillally by your statement about the definition of species even the scientific who made the experiment didn't pretend that..you dont monopolise the truth ...

  • Crispr CAS9

    Crispr CAS9

    Dag sedan

    @Sahnoune Khaled I said respond to what I said or don't respond at all. Your comment does nothing to address anything I said in my initial comment. Be serious or be silent.

  • Sahnoune Khaled

    Sahnoune Khaled

    Dag sedan

    @Crispr CAS9 alright youre 100 percent true and im 100 perpent..false...i only want a answer how the life started from dead matter in the first place..i need 100 % evidence not speculation and unproven theories

  • David Lee
    David Lee3 dagar sedan

    Ah a miniverse

  • Jean d'Arc
    Jean d'Arc3 dagar sedan

    So let me get this straight... you guys are evolving super hungry, super fast breeding bacteria that aren't fussy eaters :/

  • ranty13
    ranty133 dagar sedan

    But after the equivalent of "1.5 million years" of evolution, they haven't really evolved. They are still E.coli, just better adapted E.coli. They still have the DNA of E.coli. They haven't evolved into worms or another organism. I would say this is evidence of adaptation, not evolution.

  • Crispr CAS9

    Crispr CAS9

    2 dagar sedan

    "I would say this is evidence of adaptation, not evolution." Evolution is the change in allele frequencies in a population over successive generations, which this definitely is. "They haven't evolved into worms or another organism." If they evolved into worms or another organism, that would disprove evolution. Expecting as evidence for evolution something that would disprove evolution is a fairly clear demonstration that you don't understand what evolution is in the first place.

  • Climb High
    Climb High4 dagar sedan

    And everyone wonder how we get to the Fauci Ouchie and the bio-terrorism we going through now. Starts like this right here

  • Climb High

    Climb High

    12 timmar sedan

    @zhou sei calm down China Joe

  • zhou sei

    zhou sei

    Dag sedan

    it is my understanding that the side of the lab where they were messing around with coronaviruses from bats had nothing to do with the u.s. funding (which, btw, was signed off on by bush and obama and yes trump). is there good evidence that fauci was doing experiments on bat coronaviruses, or was overseeing that part of the lab?

  • Paul Doughty
    Paul Doughty4 dagar sedan

    This is cool to watch however a non-scientist here would think that these bacteria are adapting not evolving. Meaning these bacteria didn’t grow a tail or change their physical attributes to become something else. The closest they came was that they introduced something new to their diet. A far cry from physical change. My kid decided to try mushrooms last week but he’s still my son. Definitely cool but not what I think defines evolution.

  • zhou sei

    zhou sei

    Dag sedan

    that's not how evolution works... you'd have to see what happens to your descendants over tens of thousands of generations. pokemon evolve like you are describing, we can't just eat a magic radioactive mushroom and suddenly grow a super useful arm out of our neck...

  • Crispr CAS9

    Crispr CAS9

    4 dagar sedan

    "would think that these bacteria are adapting not evolving" Evolution is the change in allele frequencies in a population over successive generations, which this definitely is.

  • Robert Cummins
    Robert Cummins4 dagar sedan

    Bounty? Really? Bizarre.

  • Taliesin River
    Taliesin River4 dagar sedan

    Promoting paper towels is pretty dumb. You're trying to make people afraid of doing something that was never dangerous with a very unscientific experiment, and promoting an unnecessary product that's bad for the environment. I'm disappointed that a science channel I respect would accept a sponsor like this.

  • Rin倫
    Rin倫5 dagar sedan

    So, is this theory can apply to viruses too? If so, people can estimate how frequently Covid-19 will change per generation in theory?

  • Kyle Mecca
    Kyle Mecca5 dagar sedan

    This is absolutely amazing, I am fascinated by evolution. I want to see more Also I'm surprised you advertised bounty. There is nothing wrong with a little bacteria and germaphobia is indicative of a disconnection with the earth. Let's reduce and reuse, not encourage waste due to neurotic fears.

  • Taliesin River

    Taliesin River

    4 dagar sedan

    yes, very disappointing. Especially his completely unscientific 'experiment' to prove why they're useful.

  • Marge N.
    Marge N.5 dagar sedan

    So this is what will actually kill us all?

  • relentlessmadman
    relentlessmadman5 dagar sedan

    I also use paper towels but I use the less expensive brands

  • zhou sei

    zhou sei

    Dag sedan

    @relentlessmadman there are brands that do recycled paper for their t.p. and toallas papel.

  • relentlessmadman

    relentlessmadman

    5 dagar sedan

    does any one make paper towels from hemp yet????

  • Danny Ramirez
    Danny Ramirez5 dagar sedan

    My question is would there ever be a singularity that would happen during the evolutionary process

  • Danny Ramirez

    Danny Ramirez

    20 timmar sedan

    @zhou sei no i mean genetically. Would there be a generic singularity

  • zhou sei

    zhou sei

    Dag sedan

    you mean like the mass of a black hole?

  • mark green
    mark green5 dagar sedan

    What a brilliant universe G-D Created, even a tiny bacterium is programed to evolve, WOW!!!

  • mark green

    mark green

    14 timmar sedan

    ​@zhou sei Simple, where is the evidence that the London bridge was built by someone maybe it created itself? A creation is evidence on its creator, and the more complex and brilliance of the creation the more the evidence of a powerful creator.

  • zhou sei

    zhou sei

    Dag sedan

    where is there evidence of this god fella?

  • Rhianne Moll
    Rhianne Moll5 dagar sedan

    Eat E. coli, Jonathan Wells!

  • Арсенал
    Арсенал6 dagar sedan

    11:15 I got goosebumps here.

  • Rhadoo RootBwoy
    Rhadoo RootBwoy6 dagar sedan

    Sponsored by paper towels... How about you stop promoting non eco-friendly products?

  • Thom Of Hillbilly Haven
    Thom Of Hillbilly Haven6 dagar sedan

    gloves??

  • Heinz Dontbother
    Heinz Dontbother6 dagar sedan

    @Veritasium, you might suggest the professor and his students to use mipar (mipar.us) to count those bacteria. Counting by hand is not necessary nowadays.

  • BP
    BP6 dagar sedan

    Could you try this with various antibiotics? seperated from each other in the same fashion ? Did you try bacteria from the Ganges river? I heated that there is a antibiotics plant dumping these batches of bacteria in the water…

  • Tom shiba
    Tom shiba6 dagar sedan

    would be funny if one day thes ebacteria became small animals with eyes

  • Terry Caldwell
    Terry Caldwell6 dagar sedan

    The smartest ad integration

  • chuck sch.
    chuck sch.6 dagar sedan

    Wow, this is real nice science, love it! Keep going with you works its really cool. :D

  • Matthew Salvatar
    Matthew Salvatar7 dagar sedan

    Wait, so if I get the ending there. Life shows a capacity to transcend entropy?

  • To Serve Man

    To Serve Man

    5 dagar sedan

    Define "Entropy." And nothing in the universe (flowing chain reactions) transcends the universe.

  • Danish
    Danish7 dagar sedan

    When did Adam Ragusea start doin science content ?

  • michaelsimkin
    michaelsimkin7 dagar sedan

    According to the evolution theory they were supposed to develop into a multicellular organism or something. And this is what we do not see.

  • zhou sei

    zhou sei

    Dag sedan

    we cannot predict what will happen with any reliability; we know we came from a common ancestor as did a sheep or a bird, but there isn't some set endpoint to evolve into. ie, these e. coli might evolve into a multicellular organism given enough generations, but we can't know what it will be like at any given generation until we see it.

  • Crispr CAS9

    Crispr CAS9

    7 dagar sedan

    "According to the evolution theory they were supposed to develop into a multicellular organism or something." So you're saying you don't know anything about evolutionary theory? Fun.

  • erikfinnegan
    erikfinnegan7 dagar sedan

    Veritasium FAKE for money: big experiment setup to pitch paper towels - microprint disclamer in the end says that experiment is "not representative". Not the the sort of statistical significance that I've grown used to wrt this channel. Oh, and you should always use recycled material or wash. There's always room for a couple kitchen cloths in the washer.

  • David Kellen
    David Kellen7 dagar sedan

    I'm really concerned about how they handle bacteria... No gloves, just a slight "Touch" in the fire and "importante" the material and bacteria are being exposed to Open air...

  • Tyray3P
    Tyray3P7 dagar sedan

    It's all well and good until the germs can transfer through xenonite

  • Cedric Velarde
    Cedric Velarde7 dagar sedan

    1st gen e coli: we cant eat that its deadly! 1000000+ gen e coli: u wut m8?!

  • A Real Life Dog
    A Real Life Dog8 dagar sedan

    Crematoriums are for organisms that are already dead... Those furnaces look more like something found at Dachau

  • МАТЬ-РОССИЯ
    МАТЬ-РОССИЯ8 dagar sedan

    *how to create a supervirus*

  • gyamlj
    gyamlj8 dagar sedan

    This is a highly controlled environment. Compare the competitive advantage of the newest and oldest colonies in a natural world where innumerable other factors weigh in to survival. It may very well be that the older organisms are better able to survive. This is analogous to selective breeding that creates an animal with desired characteristics but is otherwise less capable of overall survival compared to its ancestors. I'm afraid this teaches me nothing.

  • Crispr CAS9

    Crispr CAS9

    7 dagar sedan

    "I'm afraid this teaches me nothing." Says more about you than the experiment, I think.

  • Ashethorama
    Ashethorama8 dagar sedan

    Did anyone else notice the reference from the movie “The 13th Warrior” on the fridge? Timestamp 7:50 minute

  • Seven Ligthson
    Seven Ligthson8 dagar sedan

    YES! Nothing out is not in and everything out is in ;-)) 1.5 (oo.000) is human program given by life = love = what you are in need of, who (do you) are (you)? I took my ABO once more!

  • Christopher Inman
    Christopher Inman9 dagar sedan

    Queen Elizabeth I (of England) cooked a fruitcake for members of parliament to celebrate its opening. A bit was saved to be included in the next parliament's opening, etc. So now, when parliament begins its new season, the members are privileged to have a bit of cake cooked by Shakespeare's favorite monarch! [i have not fact-checked this because i don't want to find out if it is not true]

  • maruftim
    maruftim9 dagar sedan

    Mad scientist fell into bacteria gacha hell...

  • AJ T
    AJ T9 dagar sedan

    Is he referring to Confirmation Bias or is it something else?

  • ZedCactus
    ZedCactus9 dagar sedan

    This episode was great! Really interesting.

  • Lief Bamberg
    Lief Bamberg9 dagar sedan

    disappoinited that derek is now hawking that idea that greater bacterial spread is somehow dirtier, and that you should use disposible environment wrecking paper over washable cloths.

  • WowZers
    WowZers9 dagar sedan

    Imagine being the chad bacteria to first eat the citrate

  • Rodrigo Segura
    Rodrigo Segura9 dagar sedan

    42, ¿coincidence? I think not

  • Frenchnostalgique
    Frenchnostalgique9 dagar sedan

    Prof Richard Lenski has the same accent as Rich Evans and it's throwing me off.

  • Azurium
    Azurium9 dagar sedan

    Me seeing 1% selection first hand: "So that's what the aliens are doing to our universe and what the Great Filter could be."

  • Azurium

    Azurium

    9 dagar sedan

    Context: imagine that at 7:30 he's talking about intergalactic species expanding across the universe.

  • Christian412 America
    Christian412 America10 dagar sedan

    The educated dumbasses still call it evolution. After 70000+ generations the bacteria is still producing bacteria. The bacteria has not produced anything but bacteria. Why is it so hard to get un biased conclusions? The only thing that has been observed is ADAPTATION not evolution.

  • Crispr CAS9

    Crispr CAS9

    9 dagar sedan

    "The educated dumbasses still call it evolution" Evolution is the change in allele frequencies in a population over successive generations, which this definitely is. "The bacteria has not produced anything but bacteria" If they produced something other than bacteria, it would disprove evolution. You understand that, right?

  • SuperSonic Boom
    SuperSonic Boom10 dagar sedan

    Nah, if the flask breaks we become the solution to the experiment.

  • Michael Kurek
    Michael Kurek10 dagar sedan

    It’s called mutation or adaptation. NOT EVOLUTION! The bacteria will always remain bacteria, just more resistant.

  • Crispr CAS9

    Crispr CAS9

    9 dagar sedan

    Evolution is the change in allele frequencies in a population over successive generations, which this definitely is.

  • Guy Fox
    Guy Fox10 dagar sedan

    IT'S GOD! LOL

  • Samaila Abdullahi
    Samaila Abdullahi10 dagar sedan

    I am forever grateful to Dr IGUDIA on SEblack who cured me from herpes with his herbal medication, you are so real and trusted.

  • RD2564
    RD256411 dagar sedan

    Beautiful video. Biosciences are a rich hunting ground for new videos.

  • David Blank
    David Blank11 dagar sedan

    So...when do they turn into monkeys??? Can monkeys evolve into bacteria???

  • Crispr CAS9

    Crispr CAS9

    10 dagar sedan

    "So...when do they turn into monkeys" Based on evolutionary science, never. If you think evolution suggests otherwise, you don't understand evolution.

  • DeadEndFrog
    DeadEndFrog11 dagar sedan

    well don't judge the Qu when they do this to us :^)

  • lalit pal
    lalit pal11 dagar sedan

    I see you evolving from young youtuber :D

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